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of acid mine drainage

Acid Mine Drainage - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

Acid mine drainage (AMD) is the runoff produced when water comes in contact with exposed rocks containing sulfur-bearing minerals that react with water and air to form sulfuric acid and dissolved iron. This acidic run-off dissolves heavy metals including copper, lead, and mercury which pollute ground and surface water. Adsorption (on coal) A process that occurs when water accumulates on the ...

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Treatment of Acid Mine Drainage

Acid mine drainage is a natural consequence of mining activity where the excavation of mineral deposits (metal bearing or coal), below the natural groundwater level, exposes sulphur containing compounds to oxygen and water. Since the introduction of steam powered engines it has been possible to mine ores substantially below the groundwater level. There is also a problem where surface waters ...

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Acid Mine Drainage - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

Acid mine drainage can also leach toxic metals such as copper, aluminum, and zinc from rocks and soils (copper is particularly toxic to fish). The oxidation, or weathering, of pyrite and other metal sulfides is ongoing as minerals are exposed to air, and these reactions may be sped up by bacteria. For example, a number of streams in the Southeastern United States are naturally acidic due to ...

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Acid mine drainage - microbewiki

26/08/2010  Acid mine drainage (AMD) occurs when metal sulfides, most commonly pyrite, are exposed to and react with air and water. When water flows over or through sulfur-bearing mine tailings, a chemical reaction occurs between the water and rocks resulting in metal-rich water. AMD typically has a bright orange, yellow, or bownish-red color to it. The mine drainage is acidic, as its name states, and ...

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Acid Mine Drainage, Impacts and Mitigation Measures ...

05/08/2020  Acid mine drainage, or acid rock drainage (ARD) is the outflow of a cidic water due to mining of metals or coal. In most cases, this acid comes primarily from oxidation of iron sulphide also known as pyrite or “fool’s gold”), which is often found in conjunction with valuable metals. Areas where the earth has been disturbed heavily may create acid rock drainage. In other areas where water ...

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Acid Mine Drainage: Sources, Impacts and Prevention

27/02/2017  Acid mine drainage (AMD) is acidic water having pH of less than 5, and also containing iron, sulfate and other metals which are formed under natural conditions when hardrock mines containing pyrite are exposed to the atmosphere or oxidizing environments. In other words, AMD can also be stated as outflow of the acidic water from mining sites. Naturally occurring microbes can also increase AMD ...

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What can be done to prevent or clean up acid mine

By far the most common mine drainage problem is that of acid mine drainage (AMD). Sulfuric acid is produced when water interacts with sulfur-bearing materials in the presence of oxygen and common bacteria [1]. The acidic water formed by this process can dissolve many metals in bioavailable forms, posing a threat to humans and wildlife [2].

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Acid mine drainage - microbewiki

26/08/2010  Acid mine drainage (AMD) occurs when metal sulfides, most commonly pyrite, are exposed to and react with air and water. When water flows over or through sulfur-bearing mine tailings, a chemical reaction occurs between the water and rocks resulting in metal-rich water. AMD typically has a bright orange, yellow, or bownish-red color to it. The mine drainage is acidic, as its name states, and ...

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What is Acid Mine Drainage? (with pictures)

Acid mine drainage is a type of pollution caused when acidic water flows out from a mine, construction site, or another disturbed area. Technically, the outflow of acidic water is natural in regions where acidic materials come into contact with the water table , but human activity can exacerbate the problem, creating a significant environmental situation.

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Acid Mine Drainage IDE Technologies

Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) is a natural phenomenon of a contaminated run-off formed by a chemical reaction between air, water and rocks containing sulfur-bearing minerals (Pyrite). The increased soil excavation of mining activity further accelerates AMD formation. Acid Mine Drainage Effects on the Environment . Acid mine drainage is a problem because it is usually very acidic, and rich in ...

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Acid Mine Drainage: Sources, Impacts and Prevention

27/02/2017  Acid mine drainage (AMD) is acidic water having pH of less than 5, and also containing iron, sulfate and other metals which are formed under natural conditions when hardrock mines containing pyrite are exposed to the atmosphere or oxidizing environments. In other words, AMD can also be stated as outflow of the acidic water from mining sites. Naturally occurring microbes can also increase AMD ...

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Acid Mine Drainage: Chemistry

10/11/2004  Acid mine drainage depletes the buffering ability of water by neutralizing carbonate and bicarbonate ions to form carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3). H + + CO 3 2- HCO 3-H + + HCO 3- H 2 CO 3. Once exposed to acid mine drainage, the affected carbonate buffering system is not able to control changes in pH as well. The buffering system is completely destroyed below a pH of 4.2, where all

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An Explanation of Acid Mine Drainage - Treehugger

13/11/2019  In a nutshell, acid mine drainage is a form of water pollution that happens when rain, runoff, or streams come in contact with rock that is rich in sulfur. As a result, the water becomes very ...

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Mine Drainage - USGS

Acid mine drainage can change the color of a stream into red or orange. Mine drainage refers to any surface water or groundwater that drains from an active or abandoned mining operation. Mine drainage can be high-quality similar to natural waters or contaminated by leftover materials. Polluted mine drainage can be extremely acidic and is often laden with high concentrations of toxic, heavy ...

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What can be done to prevent or clean up acid mine

By far the most common mine drainage problem is that of acid mine drainage (AMD). Sulfuric acid is produced when water interacts with sulfur-bearing materials in the presence of oxygen and common bacteria [1]. The acidic water formed by this process can dissolve many metals in bioavailable forms, posing a threat to humans and wildlife [2].

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TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFECTIVE TREATMENT OF ACID MINE DRAINAGE

metals from acid mine drainage in a human-made bio-system that capitalizes on biological and geochemical reactions [31]. Passive treatment systems are considered to be eco- friendly, low energy, environmentally sustainable wastewater treatment systems. Passive treatment technologies are attractive sources of mine wastewater treatment in coal mines effectively, utilized since, 1970[32]. The ...

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Acid Mine Drainage: From Waste to Resources - 1st

24/02/2021  Acid mine drainage (AMD) is essentially the flow of water polluted with metals and other substances from existing/old mining areas and is considered to be one of the sources of pollution. A wide range of technologies are available for preventing AMD generation and/or treating AMD before discharge, but there is a shift towards recovery of industrially useful materials and products from AMD ...

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What is Acid Mine Drainage? (with pictures)

Acid mine drainage is a type of pollution caused when acidic water flows out from a mine, construction site, or another disturbed area. Technically, the outflow of acidic water is natural in regions where acidic materials come into contact with the water table , but

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Acid Mine Drainage IDE Technologies

Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) is a natural phenomenon of a contaminated run-off formed by a chemical reaction between air, water and rocks containing sulfur-bearing minerals (Pyrite). The increased soil excavation of mining activity further accelerates AMD formation. Acid Mine Drainage Effects on the Environment . Acid mine drainage is a problem because it is usually very acidic, and rich in ...

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Acid Mine Drainage: Sources, Impacts and Prevention

27/02/2017  Acid mine drainage (AMD) is acidic water having pH of less than 5, and also containing iron, sulfate and other metals which are formed under natural conditions when hardrock mines containing pyrite are exposed to the atmosphere or oxidizing environments. In other words, AMD can also be stated as outflow of the acidic water from mining sites. Naturally occurring microbes can also increase AMD ...

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Acid Mine Drainage: Chemistry

10/11/2004  Acid mine drainage depletes the buffering ability of water by neutralizing carbonate and bicarbonate ions to form carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3). H + + CO 3 2- HCO 3-H + + HCO 3- H 2 CO 3. Once exposed to acid mine drainage, the affected carbonate buffering system is not able to control changes in pH as well. The buffering system is completely destroyed below a pH of 4.2, where all

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Introduction to Acid Mine Drainage - Bioenergetic Spectrum

The types of mine waste problems are numerous, but the most difficult one to address is the acid mine drainage (AMD) that emanates from both surface and underground mine workings, waste and development rock, and tailings piles and ponds. AMD is defined as drainage that occurs as a result of sulfide oxidation in rock exposed to air and water. In the case of iron sulfide (pyrite/marcasite), the ...

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How does mine drainage occur? - USGS

Acid mine drainage. Acid mine drainage (AMD) consists of metal-laden solutions produced by the oxidative dissolution of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air, moisture, and acidophilic microbes during the mining of coal and metal deposits. The pH of AMD is usually in the range of 2–6, but mine-impacted waters at circumneutral pH (5–8) are ...

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How can acid mine drainage be treated?

Treatment of AMD: Acid mine drainage sometimes forms when certain minerals in the soil and rocks around mines are exposed to weathering processes during mining. These exposed minerals release their contents into creeks causing them to become acidic. This kind of pollution damages aquatic life and makes the water useless or harmful for others who depend on it for recreation or drinking water ...

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Constructed Wetlands for Treating Acid Mine Drainage

Acid mine drainage occurs when sulfide oxidation in rock reacts with water and air creating hydroxide, sulfate, and hydrogen ions (Durkin Hermann 1994). The mineral that is responsible for this reaction, for both coal and metal mining situations, is pyrite (Wildeman . et al. 1991). Mining activities expose this mineral to weathering air, water, and microbial processes. The exposure causes ...

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Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage-Impacted Water ...

16/08/2015  The formation of acid mine drainage (AMD), a highly acidic and metal-rich solution, is the biggest environmental concern associated with coal and mineral mining. Once produced, AMD can severely impact the surrounding ecosystem due to its acidity, metal toxicity, sedimentation and other deleterious properties. Hence, implementations of effective post-mining management practices are

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Technical Document: Acid Mine Drainage Prediction

Acid mine drainage from coal and mineral mining operations is a difficult and costly problem. In the eastern U.S., more than 7,000 kilometers of streams are affected by acid drainage from coal mines (Kim et al. 1982). In the western U.S., the Forest Service estimates that between 20,000 and 50,000 mines are currently generating acid on Forest Service lands, and that drainage from these mines ...

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